The JPL Telerobot Testbed, circa 1989. Shown are three semi-autonomous robot arms: two with custom end effectors used to capture and service a slowly spinning satellite mockup on the left, and one with a vision system tracking the satellite. Not shown is the operator control station with remote visual displays and dual force-reflecting hand controllers for teleoperation of the system.
J. (Bob) Balaram - Jet Propulsion Laboratory
NASA Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (